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  1. Rosario Narchison, Martyr Devasahayam: A Documented History, 72-73. Vincent B. Wilson, “Devasahayam Pilllai: A Folk Hero” in South Indian Folklorist, 2 (July) 1994, 57-61. Pa. Vilasam, Umai Oligaventru Paadavo?, 157-161, C.P., VII, 393-395.
  2. This is given almost in all historical dramas. Some dramas speak also of the vibhudi (sacred ash from temple). See foe example: C.P., VII, 454 (sacred offering), 474 (prasadam, sacred food), 484 (sacred offering after ritual worship), 492 (not revering the Brahmins as before), 513 (prasadam), etc.
  3. Doc. A13. The History of Martyr Devasahayam Pillai, 18-23, C.P., VI, 250-251, SD, 412-413, Chap. 3.
  4. Doc. A1, Buttari Giovanni Battista, Letter of Buttari on Persecution. C.P., VI, 163, SD, 321: “Christians are people who are poor and unclean of this world. They are ignoble, they do not wash themselves, and they are intolerable. The chief among them is Devasahayam who mingles with people so vile and unclean and he is living in the Kings court dealing with people as clean and noble as the Brahmins.”
  5. Doc. A2. Thomman Thirumuthu, The Sorrows of the Martyr’s Jouney. vv. 87-90, C.P., VI, 172, SD, 320. This is the only document that gives this valuable information. This could be seen even today by the visitors with a cross symbol engraved in it.
  6. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 130, C.P., VI, 219, SD, 367, No. 105. Marthanda Varma was succeeded by this Prince as Rama Varma. He was in some way kind to Christians, though the high caste persons’ cruelties against the Christians and the low castes continued. It was to Rama Varma that the Pope had written a letter in 1876, which was delivered to him in 1780.

  7. Forging of false accusations is also mentioned in most of the documents. Cf. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 151-152, C.P., VI, 233, SD, 377-378, No. 125.

  8. See for example the Attoor drama, 36, C.P., VII, 456, “The Colonel and Devasahayam Pillai went to Vadakkankulam and explained the situation to the priest, who after thinking over the matter, administered the last rites to Devasahayam Pillai and prayed for him. After receiving the priest’s blessings, both the friends returned home. So also Kottoor Drama, 69, C.P., VII, 514, and many other dramas.

  9. Doc. A19. The History of the Vadakankulam Christianity, F. 166, C.P., VI, 771, SD, 464 says, “Devasagayam Pillai before being put in irons being pressed to be absent for a time retired to Vadakkenkulam and was for several days in a Christian village of vicinity, Pattaburam a mile distance from Vadakkenkulam. Also, Doc. A21, Leon Besse S.J., La Mission du Madure : Historique de ses Paangous, 1914, 725, C.P., VIII, 755, SD, 400.

  10. Doc. A8.Buttari, Vita ,134, C.P., VI, 221, SD, 368-369, No. 107.

  11. Doc. A4. Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 68. L, C.P., VI, 194, SD, 353, No. 6. Doc. A15.Zaleski, L.M., The Martyrs of India, Mentions the period of four years, but gives wrongly as 1748, in the French version C.P., VI, 290, but corrects it later in the English version. See SD, 440, No. 8.

  12. Doc. A4, Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 67. R., C.P., VI, 191, SD, 352, No.4.

  13. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 135, C.P., VI, 222, SD, 369, No. 108.

  14. Doc. A4, Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 68. L., C.P., VI, 194, SD, 353, No. 6.

  15. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 135, C.P., VI, 223, SD, 371, No. 110.

  16. Doc. A4, Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 68. L. - R, C.P., VI, 194-195, SD, 353, No. 6.

  17. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 138, C.P., VI, 224, SD, 371, No. 110.

  18. Doc. A1, Letter of Buttari on Persecution, C.P., VIII, 21, SD, 322.

  19. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 152-153, C.P., VI, 233, SD, 378, No. 124-125.

  20. See Docket Sheet, Prisoners – Sentenced under Trial. 1890. no. C-3729. Location: Kerala Central Archives, Thiruvananthapuram. This is dramatized very much in folklores and dramas.

  21. Doc. A2, Thomman Thirumuthu, The Sorrows of a Martyr’s Journey, vv. 147-151. C.P., VI, 175.

  22. Doc. A9. Witness of Fr. Pimentel in Buttari, Vita, 89-90, SD, 386 reports this from the notes of Pimentel himself. Besides on page 146 Buttari too speaks about it, C.P., VI, 214-216 & 232, SD, 381 ,No. 130.

  23. . Doc. A15. Zaleski, L.M., The Martyrs of India, 309-310, C.P., VI, 296, SD, 445, No. 16.

  24. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 154, C.P., VI, 235, SD, 379, No. 127.

  25. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita, 155, C.P., VI, 236, SD, 379-380, No. 128.

  26. Doc. A4. Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 69. R, C.P., VI, 198, SD, 355, No. 10.

  27. Doc. A4. Ad Limina Visit Report, FF. 68-69, C.P., VI, 196-198, SD, 354-355, Nos. 9, 10. Doc. A13. The History of Martyr Devasahayam Pillai, 48-53, C.P., VI, 262-263, SD, 422-424, Chap. 7, gives a much more detailed description of the spiritual life of the Servant of God in prison.

  28. J. Rosario Narchison, Martyr Devasahayam: A documented History, 135.

  29. Doc. A4. Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 69. R., C.P., VI, 199, SD, 355, No. 11.

  30. Ad Limina Visit Report, F. 69. R, C.P., VI, 199, SD, 355, No. 11.Bishop Clement is very precise: The period of torture was “three days minus forty days”!

  31. That only bones were collected and buried was ascertained by the identification of the tomb on 13 April 1913. The report speaks of a tomb, built by bricks and its size was 2.5 feet long. And the size of the stone which was laid on it was 4 feet and nine inches long and two feet and five inches wide.

  32. Doc. A8. Buttari, Vita,160, C.P., VI, 242. SD, 383, No. 134. Doc. A20. Christorao De Nazareth Casimiro, Mitras Lusitanas no Oriente, ii Tomo. Lisbon: Tip. Diariode Noticias, 1913. Nova Goa: Tip. Arthur & Viegas, 1924, also reports about a pastoral letter of Bishop Clement, written in 1752 about the martyrdom of Devasahayam to all people of the diocese, asking them to sing Te Deum. C.P., VI, 342, SD, 465. The Pastoral letter has not yet been found in the archives visited.

  33. Doc. A10. Ward and Conner, Memoir of the Survey of the Travancore and Cochin States, Vol. II, 13. Thiruvananthapuram : Kerala Gazetters Department, 1820 (2nd Edition 1994) says this about the church at Aralvaimozhy: “About ¾ of a Mile S.W. of the gate is a Roman Catholic Churh on a plain, the only edifice of the kind in the district. It was buit in memory of a Nair, high in office, who became a Roman Catholic, and though his friends and connections endeavoured to persuade him to renounce Christianity, he adhered to the faith and died a marty, having been hanged on the above spot by the government, to dissuade the Nairs from becoming Christians”.C.P., VI, 146-147, SD, 387.